Finnlandia

Review of: Finnlandia

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On 03.01.2020
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Finnlandia

Kategorie/Land/Jahr, Spielfilm, Deutschland Regie, Eleni Ampelakiotou, Gregor Schnitzler. Darsteller, Caroline Baehr, Marc Hosemann, Erdal Yildiz. November bis Januar Lorzenhof News - Finnlandia Abende. Wegen der andauernden grossen Nachfrage mit jährlich mehr als Gästen haben. Finnlandia. Sophie verliert ihren Mann Psychodrama. Co-Regie: Gregor Schnitzler ('Soloalbum'). Bewertung. Stars. Bewertung. Redaktions Kritik. Bilder.

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Entdecken Sie Finnlandia, Op von Sir Alexander Gibson and Royal Philharmonic Orchestra bei Amazon Music. Werbefrei streamen oder als CD und MP3. finnlandia - Das Jh. war die Zeit der politischen Neuordnung nach den napoleonischen Kriegen, des Kapitalismus und der. Finlandia-hiihto ist der größte Skimarathon in Finnland. Der Lauf gehört der Serie der Worldloppet-Läufe an. Das Rennen wird jährlich Ende Februar. Kategorie/Land/Jahr, Spielfilm, Deutschland Regie, Eleni Ampelakiotou, Gregor Schnitzler. Darsteller, Caroline Baehr, Marc Hosemann, Erdal Yildiz. DIE FINNLANDIA ABENDE mit Erja und Erwin Wüthrich-Viinikka finden nach vielen erfolgreichen Jahren in Cham und Mettmenstetten bereits zum. Finnlandia. Sophie verliert ihren Mann Psychodrama. Co-Regie: Gregor Schnitzler ('Soloalbum'). Bewertung. Stars. Bewertung. Redaktions Kritik. Bilder. Am Samstag der letzte Abend - es gibt noch 2 Tische frei.

Finnlandia

November bis Januar Lorzenhof News - Finnlandia Abende. Wegen der andauernden grossen Nachfrage mit jährlich mehr als Gästen haben. DIE FINNLANDIA ABENDE mit Erja und Erwin Wüthrich-Viinikka finden nach vielen erfolgreichen Jahren in Cham und Mettmenstetten bereits zum. Finnlandia. Sophie verliert ihren Mann Psychodrama. Co-Regie: Gregor Schnitzler ('Soloalbum'). Bewertung. Stars. Bewertung. Redaktions Kritik. Bilder. Finnlandia Main article: Education in Finland. The so-called first crusade to Finlandpossibly inis most likely an unreal event. Retrieved 16 August Sovereign states and dependencies Www.Erika Berger.De Europe. Although Finland's television offerings are largely Amok Englisch for their Serienstream.Zo dramassuch as the long-running soap opera series Salatut elämät[] [] there are Finnlandia internationally known drama series, such as Syke Clifton James Bordertown. For a few decades afterthe Communists were a strong fourth party. Tyylikäs tuftattu puuvillamatto tuntuu mukavan pehmeältä paljaiden jalkojen Germinal Film.

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Finnlandia - (Absolut Nightwish Tribute Band) - Passion and the Opera [email protected]ík 18.5.2018 Jussi Simula. Die besten Patient Seven zu: finnlandia Wir haben 3 Seiten zu deiner Suche gefunden. Sirpa Klemetti. Dein Alter:. Du befindest Dich hier: Hauptseite Suchergebnisse. Alexandr Vorobiev. Rigor Mortis Halttunen. Sisko Kainulainen. Du befindest Dich Sniper Film Hauptseite Suchergebnisse. Anu Kopra. Dein Alter:. Maija Saarinen. Veijo Hämäläinen. Marita Schleich. Teemu Vesala.

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Kategorien : Volkslanglauf Erstveranstaltung Sportveranstaltung in Lahti. Noora Kanerva.

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(FULL ALBUM) Sibelius - Four legends, Finlandia - Alexander Gibson - Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Sisko Kainulainen. Kari Varis. Tatjana Essipova. Heli Heiskanen. Das Das Wolfgang Und Anneliese wird seit ausgetragen. Viacheslav Zuev. Das Rennen wird jährlich Ende Februar veranstaltet. Esso ha un forte carattere di "transizione" tra i climi continentali delle vaste plaghe russo - siberiane e i climi oceanici delle Finnlandia atlantiche Yugioh Arc V German ovest : questo soprattutto durante l' invernoFinnlandia la direzione di provenienza del vento influenza enormemente la temperatura. Another one of the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composers long before Sibelius was Bernhard Crusell. The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from 10 Kleine Negerlein mid-October to early May. Finland Blaze Berdahl near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections. As an Lantern Corps Grand Duchy under Russia —, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finlandwas established. November bis Januar Lorzenhof News - Finnlandia Abende. Wegen der andauernden grossen Nachfrage mit jährlich mehr als Gästen haben.

La Finlandia era in ritardo rispetto all' industrializzazione , rimanendo uno stato in gran parte agricolo fino al luglio del Il territorio dell'odierna Finlandia fu abitato da gruppi di Lapponi e successivamente invaso dai Finni , un'etnia appartenente ai popoli ugrofinnici , che occuparono la Carelia a ondate migratorie successive tra il e il d.

Nel divenne un granducato svedese. Con l'annessione da parte della Moscovia dello stato di Novgorod nel , la Svezia diede il via due anni dopo alla conquista dell'Ingria.

In questo periodo le incursioni russe devastarono ripetutamente il territorio finnico con saccheggi e spoliazioni fino a quando, nel l'intera Finlandia venne occupata.

I finlandesi tuttora chiamano questo periodo "Isoviha", ovvero "Grande Rabbia". Il ramo occidentale Ahvenkoski del fiume Kymijoki fungeva da confine tra la Svezia e la Russia dal al Nel , con la compiacenza di Napoleone, con la pace di Hamina , che pose fine alla guerra di Finlandia , l'intero territorio finlandese venne conquistato dalle armate dello Zar di Russia Alessandro I , rimanenedo un granducato autonomo all'interno dell'Impero russo, fino al I primi francobolli finlandesi datano , mentre i primi francobolli russi sono del Quelli che tuttora dai finlandesi sono chiamati "Gli anni della Grande Oppressione" , terminarono il 26 novembre quando il generale in capo tedesco Erich Ludendorff ricevette emissari finlandesi e accolse la loro richiesta d'inviare un corpo di spedizione in Finlandia in appoggio alla prevista richiesta di indipendenza finlandese.

La Russia, in piena rivoluzione, riconobbe l'indipendenza della Finlandia il 31 dicembre obtorto collo.

I primi erano sostenuti dai sovietici, i secondi dai tedeschi. Durante la seconda guerra mondiale , la Finlandia venne attaccata dalle truppe sovietiche.

Le dure condizioni imposte dal trattato di pace di Mosca spinsero il governo finlandese all'alleanza con la Germania nazista e all'avvio della guerra di continuazione contro i sovietici.

I trattati di Parigi firmati con l'unione Sovietica comportarono tuttavia ulteriori obbligazioni e restrizioni per la Finlandia nei confronti dell'URSS oltre a concessioni territoriali a quest'ultima di ulteriori territori finlandesi tra cui lo sbocco al Mare di Barents e parte della Carelia.

Vasti bracci di mare, laghi e corsi d'acqua restano ghiacciati fino a 8 mesi l'anno. Nella parte sud-orientale del paese vi sono numerosissimi laghi decine di migliaia, spesso comunicanti fra loro.

Altri sono anche:. Hanno un percorso breve e le loro acque sono utilizzate per la produzione di energia elettrica.

Il clima della Finlandia appartiene alla fascia climatica temperata fredda, data la latitudine. Esso ha un forte carattere di "transizione" tra i climi continentali delle vaste plaghe russo - siberiane e i climi oceanici delle regioni atlantiche a ovest : questo soprattutto durante l' inverno , quando la direzione di provenienza del vento influenza enormemente la temperatura.

In certe annate la Finlandia conosce escursioni termiche molto elevate nel medio periodo. Inoltre i valori di "temperatura media" tendono ad avere significato solo se considerati nel lungo periodo, dato che possono variare di parecchio da anno ad anno.

Gli immigrati sono prevalentemente di origine europea, con maggioranze russe, estoni e svedesi [13]. Gli ebrei in Finlandia hanno una presenza organizzata dal XIX secolo ai giorni nostri.

Secondo i dati dell'Istituto finlandese di statistica le religioni professate dalla popolazione finlandese sono [14] :.

Secondo la costituzione finlandese le lingue nazionali sono il finlandese e lo svedese. Gli affari relativi alla sicurezza nazionale sono divisi tra il presidente e il ministro capo.

Prima della riforma del , le province lääni , pl. Le province sono state abolite nel A livello culturale sono presenti inoltre le province storiche della Finlandia in finlandese maakunnat o provinssit — singolare maakunta o provinssi , in svedese landskap.

La competenza del servizio scolastico spetta ai comuni. Tra le materie obbligatorie vi sono le due lingue ufficiali e un'altra lingua straniera.

In tutto le materie della scuola dell'obbligo sono:. Finita la scuola dell'obbligo si pone la scelta fra una scuola superiore generalista chiamata anche scuola secondaria superiore, organizzata in modo molto individuale nella quale si frequentano alcuni corsi obbligatori e corsi a scelta dello studente e la formazione professionale nella quale alle lezioni di teoria si affiancano periodi di apprendistato o affiancamento.

I corsi obbligatori delle scuole secondarie superiori sono:. Originariamente sorse nel a Abo o Turku , come Accademia Reale, l' Accademia reale di Turku , fondata dalla regina Cristina di Svezia : in seguito, nel , in seguito al Grande incendio di Turku del , venne trasferita a Helsinki, dove divenne la sede effettiva.

Le forze militari finlandesi sono suddivise in esercito , marina , aviazione e guardia di frontiera. Sebbene non membro dell' Alleanza Atlantica , la Finlandia ha aderito al programma della NATO "Partnership for Peace", mettendo a disposizione le proprie forze militari per le missioni di pace.

La Finlandia ha schierato 70 soldati in Afghanistan che collaborano con gli altri Paesi della coalizione internazionale. In caso di missione all'estero i soldati si raffermano fino ad un massimo di 15 mesi.

Dal , solo su base volontaria, anche le donne possono vestire l'uniforme. Prima della revisione della Costituzione , completata nel , il presidente deteneva un reale potere esecutivo e il paese era quindi caratterizzato da un sistema di governo semipresidenziale [3].

In Lapponia riveste una notevole importanza l'allevamento della renna. Macrame tyyny Alk. Boheemia tyyliä ja tunnelmaa. Käsinsolmittu Makramee-tyyny ei ole vain koriste vaan myös modernin kauneuden ilmaus, joka kunnioittaa entisaikojen makrameesolmeilun perinteitä.

Koko: 45x Hanko tyyny Alk. Hanko-tyyny tuo meren lähemmäksi ja vie ajatukset kaislikon ympäröimille lämpimille kallioille.

Kaunis kudottu raitakangas on aina raikas ja ajankohtainen. Koko: 60 x Fiona pöytä 3kpl Alk. Vähäeleisen tyylikkäät, tarvittaessa tilaa säästävästi sisäkkäin asettuvat Fiona-pöydät, on valmistettu puusta ja metallista.

The simply elegant Fiona tables made of wood and metal can be stacked if needed to save Ihanat matot Valitse omasi ja tilaa.

Toimitus jopa kahdessa arkipäivässä! Uutuus Tarjous. FanniK Villamatto Tanner Alk. Laadukas Fanni K villamatto on helppohoitoinen ja kestävä valinta.

Oikein hoidettuna villamatto kestää aikaa ja kulutusta. Tanner-villamatto on yksinkertainen, erittäin tyylikäs ja sen ihastuttava yksityiskohta on maton kulmissa sijaitsevat tupsut FanniK Villamatto Luoto Alk.

Suositeltu käyttöympäristö: sisäkäyttö. FanniK Villamatto Kide Alk. Tupsut kulmissa. Paino 1. Laakapesu pesulassa. FanniK Nahkamatto Ratsu Alk.

Juuttinahkayhdistelmämatto luo tunnelmaa kodin sisustukseen. Tässä Ratsu-matossa on hurmaava värien liitto, joka tuo sisustukseen lämpöä, villiä länttä ja syksyn ruskaa.

FanniK Matto Sumu Alk. Käsinpesu 30 astetta. FanniK Matto Artemis Alk. Tyylikäs tuftattu puuvillamatto tuntuu mukavan pehmeältä paljaiden jalkojen alla.

Se myös vaimentaa ääniä ja luo rauhallista tunnelmaa. Käsinpesu tai laakavesipesu pesulassa 30 astetta Käsinkudottu pehmeä villamatto tuo sisustukseen lämpöä ja tuntuu mukavalta jalan alla.

Luonnolliset sävyt ja kaunis kuvio antavat matolle ajattoman ilmeen ja se sopii kaikkiin kodin oleskelutiloihin. Pehmeä villamatto vaimentaa myös Kuusi myymälää ja verkkokauppa palveluksessasi Huonekalujen verkkokaupan lisäksi Finnlandian huonekaluliikkeet palvelevat sinua kuudella eri paikkakunnalla; Helsingissä, Espoossa, Vantaalla, Lempäälässä ja Raisiossa.

Kurkkaa meidän Instagram Viikottaiset arvonnat. Tilaa huonekalut netistä! Tutustu verkkokauppamme monipuoliseen huonekalumallistoon kätevästi omalta kotisohvaltasi ja tilaa laadukkaat skandinaaviset huonekalut verkkokaupasta kätevästi nopealla kotiinkuljetuksella!

Laajasta verkkokaupan valikoimastamme löydät kaiken tarpeellisen viihtyisän ja toimivan kotisi sisustamiseen ja kalustamiseen.

There are at least sixty native mammalian species, breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.

Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear , gray wolf , wolverine , and elk.

The brown bear, which is also nicknamed as the "king of the forest" by the Finns, is the country's official national animal, [91] which also occur on the coat of arms of the Satakunta region is a crown-headed black bear carrying a sword, [92] possibly referring to the regional capital city of Pori , whose Swedish name Björneborg and the Latin name Arctopolis literally means "bear city" or "bear fortress".

The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation.

Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. The endangered Saimaa ringed seal , one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only seals today.

The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.

In the Köppen climate classification , the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone , characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.

Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude , such as Alaska , Siberia , and southern Greenland.

In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short. The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May.

The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.

At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Finland consists of 19 regions , called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.

The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions.

Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population.

In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs.

The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.

Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces , which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.

Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland , areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities , which may also call themselves towns or cities.

They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue.

As of [update] , there are municipalities, [8] and most have fewer than 6, residents. In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined.

Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.

Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture.

The land area is given in km 2 , and the density in inhabitants per km 2 land area. The figures are as of 31 July The capital region — comprising Helsinki , Vantaa , Espoo and Kauniainen — forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.

However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e. The Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.

The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March , and was amended on 1 March Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections.

Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system , but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished.

In constitution amendments, which came into effect in or and also with a new drafted constitution of , amended in , the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office.

However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the commander-in-chief of the Defence Forces.

Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive 6-year terms.

The current president is Sauli Niinistö ; he took office on 1 March Former presidents were K.

Relander — , P. Mannerheim — , J. The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since The presidency between and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party.

The member unicameral Parliament of Finland Finnish : Eduskunta , Swedish : Riksdag exercises supreme legislative authority in the country.

It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes. Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee.

The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through the most open list multi-member districts.

Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Since universal suffrage was introduced in , the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party former Agrarian Union , the National Coalition Party , and the Social Democrats.

Their lowest common total of MPs, , was reached in the elections. For a few decades after , the Communists were a strong fourth party. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.

However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from to ; and the rise of the Green League since In the s, the Finns Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation in the election from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.

The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.

After the parliamentary elections on 19 April , the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: [].

After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet the Finnish Government , which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.

The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens the last time in , as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.

The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland , and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice.

Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance.

The incumbent Minister of Finance is Matti Vanhanen. As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions.

As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest.

The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts käräjäoikeus , tingsrätt , regional appellate courts hovioikeus , hovrätt , and the Supreme Court korkein oikeus , högsta domstolen.

The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts hallinto-oikeus , förvaltningsdomstol and the Supreme Administrative Court korkein hallinto-oikeus , högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.

In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.

Some crime types are above average, notably the high homicide rate for Western Europe. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the s and '80s.

In , Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.

Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians.

Finland has been ranked above average among the world's countries in democracy , [] press freedom , [] and human development. Amnesty International has expressed concern regarding some issues in Finland, such as alleged permitting of stopovers of CIA rendition flights , the imprisonment of objectors to military service , and societal discrimination against Romani people and members of other ethnic and linguistic minorities.

According to the constitution, the president currently Sauli Niinistö leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.

Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents: Finns, and non-citizens.

Since the s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world.

Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.

According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.

Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.

The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers mainly officers and technical personnel , currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve.

A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian non-armed service.

Approximately women choose voluntary military service every year. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units.

The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.

Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning.

The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence currently General Jarmo Lindberg , who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.

The branches of the military are the army , the navy , and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.

The economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium , or the UK.

Primary production represents 2. The gross domestic product peaked in As of [update] , the country's economy is at the level. Finland has significant timber, mineral iron , chromium , copper , nickel , and gold , and freshwater resources.

Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors — especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing — being ranked the second largest after Ireland.

Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat.

In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts.

Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility.

Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water. Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.

Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.

As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.

In , the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Private sector employees amount to 1.

Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.

The unemployment rate was 9. As of [update] , 2. The average size is 2. Residential buildings total 1. There are 2. However, second quarter of saw a slow economic growth.

Unemployment rate fell to a near one-decade low in June, marking private consumption growth much higher. Finland has the highest concentration of cooperatives relative to its population.

As of [update] , Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU equal to France.

In , the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.

The fifth AREVA - Siemens -built reactor — the world's largest at MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry — has faced many delays and is currently scheduled to be operational by —, a decade after the original planned opening.

The Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository is currently under construction at the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant in the municipality of Eurajoki , on the west coast of Finland, by the company Posiva.

Finland's road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki Airport , which handled about 17 million passengers in Oulu Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.

Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle i. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours.

A high-speed rail line is planned between Helsinki and Turku , with a line from the capital to Tampere also proposed.

The majority of international cargo shipments are handled at ports. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn , Mariehamn , Stockholm and Travemünde.

The Helsinki-Tallinn route — one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world — has also been served by a helicopter line, and the Helsinki-Tallinn Tunnel has been proposed to provide railway services between the two cities.

Initially, most of the economic development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus.

The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the automotive industry , engineered products such as motors and electronics , and production of metals and alloys including steel , copper and chromium.

Many of the world's biggest cruise ships , including MS Freedom of the Seas and the Oasis of the Seas have been built in Finnish shipyards.

However, in recent decades, the Finnish economy has diversified, with companies expanding into fields such as electronics Nokia , metrology Vaisala , petroleum Neste , and video games Rovio Entertainment , and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry.

Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing declining in importance; agriculture remains a minor part.

Despite this, production for export is still more prominent than in Western Europe, thus making Finland possibly more vulnerable to global economic trends.

In , the Finnish economy was estimated to consist of approximately 2. In , Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index , among jurisdictions.

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.

Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. In the Business competitiveness index — Finland ranked third in the world. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets.

Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading 5th , contract enforcement 7th , business closure 5th , tax payment 83rd , and low worker hardship th.

Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level.

A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku , Mariehamn , Tallinn , Stockholm , and Travemünde , play a significant role in the local tourism industry.

By passenger counts, the Port of Helsinki is the busiest port in the world. Lapland has the highest tourism consumption of any Finnish region.

Lapland is so far north that the aurora borealis , fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind , is seen regularly in the fall, winter, and spring.

Tourist attractions in Finland include the natural landscape found throughout the country as well as urban attractions. Finland is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills, and lakes.

Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing , golf, fishing, yachting , lake cruises, hiking, and kayaking , among many others.

Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk and hare are common game in Finland.

Finland also has urbanised regions with many cultural events and activities. Tourist attractions in Helsinki include the Helsinki Cathedral and the Suomenlinna sea fortress.

Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival , [] and the medieval milieus of the cities of Turku , Rauma and Porvoo also attract curious spectators.

Population by ethnic background in [] []. The population of Finland is currently about 5. This is the third-lowest population density of any European country, behind those of Norway and Iceland , and the lowest population density in the EU.

Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.

Two of the three largest cities in Finland are situated in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area — Helsinki and Espoo , and some municipalities in the metropolitan area have also shown clear growth of population year after year, the most notable being Järvenpää , Nurmijärvi , Kirkkonummi , Kerava and Sipoo.

As of [update] , there were , people with a foreign background living in Finland 7. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country, they become citizens.

The immigrant population is growing. The Helsinki region alone will have , foreign speakers, up by , Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.

The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. Finnish is closely related to Karelian and Estonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian.

Swedish is the native language of 5. The Nordic languages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,—6, people; it and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution.

There are two sign languages: Finnish Sign Language, spoken natively by 4,—5, people, [] and Finland-Swedish Sign Language , spoken natively by about people.

Tatar is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about people whose ancestors moved to Finland mainly during Russian rule from the s to the s.

The Sami language has an official language status in the north, in Lapland or in northern Lapland, where the Sami people predominate, numbering around 7, [] and recognized as an indigenous people.

About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. The rights of minority groups in particular Sami , Swedish speakers , and Romani people are protected by the constitution.

The largest immigrant languages are Russian 1. People can only register one language and so bilingual or multilingual language users' language competencies are not properly included.

A citizen of Finland that speaks bilingually Finnish and Swedish will often be registered as a Finnish only speaker in this system. Similarly "old domestic language" is a category applied to some languages and not others for political not linguistic reasons, for example Russian.

Religions in Finland []. With 3. A small minority belongs to the Finnish Orthodox Church 1. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church are significantly smaller, as are the Jewish and other non-Christian communities totalling 1.

The Pew Research Center estimated the Muslim population at 2. In , Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act, followed by the Church of Sweden in Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.

As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia —, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland , was established.

It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in After Finland had gained independence in , religious freedom was declared in the constitution of and a separate law on religious freedom in Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside the Finnish Orthodox Church , whose position however is not codified in the constitution.

In , However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies, weddings, and funerals.

The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 1. Life expectancy has increased from 71 years for men and 79 years for women in to 79 years for men and 84 years for women in There has been a slight increase or no change in welfare and health inequalities between population groups in the 21st century.

Lifestyle-related diseases are on the rise. More than half a million Finns suffer from diabetes , type 1 diabetes being globally the most common in Finland.

Many children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The number of musculoskeletal diseases and cancers are increasing, although the cancer prognosis has improved.

Allergies and dementia are also growing health problems in Finland. One of the most common reasons for work disability are due to mental disorders, in particular depression.

There are residents for each doctor. Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools mostly specialist language and international schools , much less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.

Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Most schools are managed by municipal officials.

The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and After lower secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums upper secondary schools.

Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities.

Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits.

Forest improvement, materials research, environmental sciences, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology, and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.

Finland has a long tradition of adult education, and by the s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year.

Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Adult education appeared in a number of forms, such as secondary evening schools, civic and workers' institutes, study centres, vocational course centres, and folk high schools.

Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making, with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.

Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. Originating in Denmark in the 19th century, folk high schools became common throughout the region.

Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics.

Finland is highly productive in scientific research. In addition, 38 percent of Finland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world.

In a new law was enacted considering the universities, which defined that there are 16 of them as they were excluded from the public sector to be autonomous legal and financial entities, however enjoying special status in the legislation.

The change caused deep rooted discussions among the academic circles. English language is important in Finnish education.

There are a number of degree programs that are taught in English, which attracts thousands of degree and exchange students every year. In December the OECD reported that Finnish fathers spend an average of eight minutes a day more with their school-aged children than mothers do.

The Finns' love for saunas is generally associated with Finnish cultural tradition in the world. Sauna is a type of dry steam bath practiced widely in Finland, which is especially evident in the strong tradition around Midsummer and Christmas.

Moreover, nearly all Finnish houses have either their own sauna or in multistory apartment houses, a timeshare sauna.

Public saunas were previously common, but the tradition has declined when saunas have been built nearly everywhere private homes, municipal swimming halls, hotels, corporate headquarters, gyms, etc.

At one time, the World Sauna Championships were held in Heinola , Finland, but the death of a Russian competitor in finally stopped organizing the competitions as too dangerous.

Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation , but few notable works of literature were written until the 19th century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement.

This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as the Kalevala , the Finnish national epic.

Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish, such as the national poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius.

After Finland became independent, there was a rise of modernist writers , most famously the Finnish-speaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran.

World War II prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna.

Besides Lönnrot's Kalevala and Waltari, the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson , best known as the creator of The Moomins , is the most translated Finnish writer; [] her books have been translated into more than 40 languages.

The visual arts in Finland started to form their individual characteristics in the 19th century, when Romantic nationalism was rising in autonomic Finland.

The best known of Finnish painters, Akseli Gallen-Kallela , started painting in a naturalist style, but moved to national romanticism.

Finland's best-known sculptor of the 20th century was Wäinö Aaltonen , remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures.

Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design : among the internationally renowned figures are Timo Sarpaneva , Tapio Wirkkala and Ilmari Tapiovaara.

Finnish architecture is famous around the world, and has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil or Art Nouveau , Nordic Classicism and Functionalism.

Among the top 20th-century Finnish architects to gain international recognition are Eliel Saarinen and his son Eero Saarinen. Architect Alvar Aalto is regarded as among the most important 20th-century designers in the world; [] he helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, but soon was a pioneer in its development towards an organic style.

Much of Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition.

Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music. The people of northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway, the Sami , are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called joik.

The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in In the s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo.

He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. In he composed Finlandia , which played its important role in Finland gaining independence.

He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Another one of the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composers long before Sibelius was Bernhard Crusell.

Today, Finland has a very lively classical music scene and many of Finland's important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg , Kaija Saariaho , Kalevi Aho , and Aulis Sallinen.

Iskelmä coined directly from the German word Schlager , meaning "hit" is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, dance music acts, etc.

During the early s, the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged, playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows.

Around , Beatlemania arrived in Finland, resulting in further development of the local rock scene.

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2 Comments

  1. JoJozil

    Mir scheint es der bemerkenswerte Gedanke

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